尤其是英语名言,  举实例是在文章主体部分

作者:外语留学

  托福写作是托福考试中的一部分,托福写作对大家的要求是比较高的,想要取得托福写作高分,大家还需要掌握一些论证方法。一起看看小编给大家整理的内容吧。

  1. 开头万能公式一:名人名言

1) 先后次序关系:

at this time; first; second; at last; next;previously; simultaneously同时地; eventually;last but not least;to begin with;to start with;to end with;finally;seeing...由于,因为;since then;first of all;afterwards后来; following this; preceding先前的 ;originally最初的ultimate最终的,极限的,根本的

图片 1图片源于网络

  有人问了,“我没有记住名言,怎么办?尤其是英语名言?”,很好办:编!

2) 因果关系:

because;because of this;being that(口语)既然,因为;another important factor/reason of... ; since; as; for; in that...; owing to由于,通常负面; due to由于; for the reason that...; in view of鉴于,考虑到 result from归因于the reason seems to be obvious; there are about... ;for this reason; as a result of this;therefore;...and so...;consequently所以,因此;as a result;thus这样,如此,因而; hence因此; so;so that...; in consequence结果,结果; as a consequence; accordingly因此,于是,相应地; inevitably不可避免地; under these conditions thereupon因此于是upon迫近

  方法一:举实例

  原理:我们看到的东西很多都是创造出来的,包括我们欣赏的文章也是8,所以尽管编,但是一定要听起来很有道理呦!而且没准将来我们就是名人呢!对吧?

3) 转折关系:

but;even so;however;though;even though;independent of;reckless of不顾 ;despite that; in spite of that; regardless of不顾; yet...;and yet;but unless. Nonetheless尽管如此

  1. 并列关系: and; also;too;as well as;either...,or...;both...and...

  举实例是在文章主体部分最常用也是最实用的方法!而且这也是我们揭示一个观点最好的方式,任何情况下,只要我们无法继续文章,不管三七二十一,尽管举例子!

  经典句型:

5) (补充)递进关系:

furthermore 此外,而且;moreover而且,此外;further进一步地,此外;In this way ;still; not only...but also...; not...but...; in addition (to);additionally, much more interesting, more specifically更具体地说, next, besides; as far as... is concerned至于; moreover此外;in other words;
along this line of consideration;on (the) one hand...在一方面,on the other hand...; even; as a saying goes...;in order to do it...; meanwhile同时; at the same time;accordingly因此; In the first place...,in the second place...;equally important; of even greater appeal.

  或者上面我们举过的例子:

  A proberb says, “ You are only young once。” (适用于已记住的名言)

6) 比较关系:

similarly; in like manner, in comparison with;when compared with;compared with;when in fact...; like...; likewise同样地,也; similarly important; apart from (doing)...; ... rather than...,by doing so ;both…and...; in the same way; not only...but (also).

  I cannot bear it。

  It goes without saying that we cannot be young forever. (适用于自编名言)

7) 对照(不同点):

yet; still; for all of that; notwithstanding虽然,尽管; rather当然,的确,宁愿,相当; neither ... nor; although; though; but; however; something is just the other way around;yet; conversely相反的; unlike; opposed to; as opposed to this与不同 ; in contrast (to); by way of;on the contrary;different from this; nevertheless然而,不过,虽然如此; contrary to; whereas但是,鉴于; while;but on the other hand

  可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it。

  更多经典句型:

8) 举例关系:

for example; for instance例如; in this case既然假若这样; namely也就是 instance例子实例
换 句话说; as you know; you may as/say; as he explains; like; such as; a case in point is一个恰当的例子是...; consider...; in particular尤其特别;including...;for one thing...首先,for another...;put it simply;stated roughly粗糙地,概略地; as an illustration, I will say...; a good example (of...)would be...;to detail this,I would like to...; It is interesting to note that...;in this situation; as proof; take the case of; take as example (something);as for; as regards; as to;according to; on this occasion.

尤其是英语名言,  举实例是在文章主体部分最常用也是最实用的方法。  因此可以这样说:I cannot bear it。 That is to say, I cannot put up with it or I am fed up with it。

  As everyone knows, No one can deny that…

9) 强调关系:

in fact; especially;particularly特别,尤其;moreover(此外);naturally; what is more important;in reality事实上; certainly; of course; indeed; in particular;not to mention...;believe it or not;undeniably(无可置疑); other thing being equal;it is certain/sure that...;to be strict; to be true;by definition; definitely明确地,肯定地; undoubtedly; without a doubt; in truth, in any event(不论怎样); without reservation(毫无保留地); obviously, not only.. but(also...), both... and...

  方法二:擅用“换言之”

  2. 开头万能公式二:数字统计

10) 条件关系:

if;unless; lest;provided that;if it is the case;in this sense;once...;if possible;if necessary;if so;if not all; if anything.

  没话说了,可以换一句话再说,让你的文章在多一些字,或者文邹邹地说,是让读者更充分的理解你的观点。

  原理:要想更有说服力,就应该用实际的数字来说明。

11) 归纳总结类:

in a word / in sum / in short
in brief / in conclusion / in summary
therefore因此,所以 / hence因此,今后
to sum up / to conclude
the conclusion can be drawn that
for this reason / on the whole

  实际就是重复重复再重复!下面的句子实际上就三个字 I love you!

  原则上在议论文当中十不应该出现虚假数字的,可是在考试的时候哪管那三七二十一,但编无妨,只要我有东西写就万事大吉了。所以不妨试用下面的句型:

12) 地点关系:

beyond; opposite to; adjacent邻近 to; at the same place; there; over; in the middle; around; in front of; in the distance; farther; here and there; above; below; at the right; between; on this side.

  I am enthusiastic about you。 That is to say, I love you。

  According to a recent survey, about 78.9% of the college students wanted to further their study after their graduation。

13) 目的关系:

with this object无证; for this purpose; in order that; in this way, since; so that; on that account由于。。。缘故; in case万一; with a view to考虑到; for the same reason.

  I am wild about you。 In other words, I have fallen in love with you。

  看起来这个数字文邹邹的,其实都是编造出来的,下面随便几个题目我们都可以这样编造:

14) 重申关系:

in other words; that is to say; as I have said; again; once again.

  更多短语:

  Honesty

15) 结果关系:

accordingly; thus; consequently(因此); hence; therefore; thereupon; inevitably; under these conditions; as a result; as a consequence; because; because of; so that; not only...but (also...); so... as to.

  in more difficult language, in simpler words, put it more simply

  根据最近的一项统计调查显示,大学生向老师请假的理由当中78%都是假的。

16) 顺序关系:

first; second; thirdly; next; then; at the outset(在开始时),following this; at this time; now; at this point; after; afterward后来; after this; subsequently后来; lastly最终; finally; consequently所以,因此; before this; previously; preceding this; simultaneously同时地; concurrently(同时发生的)

  方法三:作比较

  Travel by Bike

17) 时间关系:

at once; immediately; at length终于,最后; in the mean time同时; meanwhile; at the same time; in the end; then; soon; not long after; later; at once; at last; finally; some time ago; at present; all of a sudden突然; from this time on; from time to time; since then; when; whenever; next point; a few minutes later; formerly; as; once; since; occasionally偶然地; in a moment; shortly立刻; whereupon于是,因此; previously Henceforth今后

  方法:写完一个要点,比较与之相似的;又写完一个要点,再比较与之相反的;

  根据最近的一项统计调查显示,85%的人在近距离旅行的时候首选的交通工具是自行车。

  世界上没有同样的指纹,没有相同的树叶,文章亦同,只有通过比较,你才会发现二者的相同点(through comparison)和不同点(through contrast)。下面是一些短语:

  Youth

  相似的比较:

  根据最近的一项统计调查显示,在某个大学,学生的课余时间的70%都是在休闲娱乐。

  in comparison, likewise, similarly, in the same manner

  Five-day Work Week Better than Six-day Work?

  相反的比较:

  根据最近的一项统计调查显示,98%的人同意每周五天工作日。

  on the other hand, conversely, whereas, while, instead, nevertheless, in contrast, on the contrary, compared with …, …

  更多句型:

  运用上面三种常用的丰富文章主体的方法,同学们在今后的考试中一定能将苍白空洞的文章变得生动丰富,并且可以吸引到阅卷考官的注意。

  A recent statistics shows that …

  众所周知,托福写作对大家的要求是比较高的,想要取得托福写作高分,大家还需要掌握一些论证方法。

  结尾万能公式:

  方法一:举实例

  1. 结尾万能公式一:如此结论

  举实例是在文章主体部分最常用也是最实用的方法!而且这也是我们揭示一个观点最好的方式,任何情况下,只要我们无法继续文章,不管三七二十一,尽管举例子!

  说完了,毕竟要归纳一番,相信各位都有这样的经历,领导长篇大论,到最后终于冒出个“总而言之”之类的话,我们马上停止开小差,等待领导说结束语。也就是说,开头很好,也必然要有一个精彩的结尾,让读者眼前一亮,这样,你就可以拿高分了!比如下面的例子:

  或者上面我们举过的例子:

  Obviously(此为过渡短语), we can draw the conclusion that good manners arise from politeness and respect for others。

  I cannot bear it。

  如果读者很难“显而见之”,但说无妨,就当读者的眼光太浅罢了!

  可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it。

  更多过渡短语:

  因此可以这样说:I cannot bear it。 That is to say, I cannot put up with it or I am fed up with it。

  to sum up, in conclusion, in brief, on account of this, thus

  方法二:擅用“换言之”

  更多句型:

  没话说了,可以换一句话再说,让你的文章在多一些字,或者文邹邹地说,是让读者更充分的理解你的观点。

  Thus, it can be concluded that…, Therefore, we can find that…

  实际就是重复重复再重复!下面的句子实际上就三个字 I love you!

  2. 结尾万能公式二:如此建议

  I am enthusiastic about you。 That is to say, I love you。

  如果说“如此结论”是结尾最没用的废话,那么“如此建议”应该是最有价值的废话了,因为这里虽然也是废话,但是却用了一个很经典的虚拟语气的句型。拽!

  I am wild about you。 In other words, I have fallen in love with you。

  Obviously, it is high time that we took some measures to solve the problem。

  更多短语:

  这里的虚拟语气用得很经典,因为考官本来经常考这个句型,而如果我们自己写出来,你说考官会怎么想呢?

  in more difficult language, in simpler words, put it more simply

  更多句型:

  方法三:作比较

  Accordingly, I recommend that some measures be taken。

  方法:写完一个要点,比较与之相似的;又写完一个要点,再比较与之相反的;

  Consequently, to solve the problem, some measures should be taken。

  世界上没有同样的指纹,没有相同的树叶,文章亦同,只有通过比较,你才会发现二者的相同点(through comparison)和不同点(through contrast)。下面是一些短语:

  写作的“七项基本原则”:

  相似的比较:

  一、长短句原则

  in comparison, likewise, similarly, in the same manner

  工作还得一张一驰呢,老让读者读长句,累死人!写一个短小精辟的句子,相反,却可以起到画龙点睛的作用。而且如果我们把短句放在段首或者段末,也可以揭示主题:

  相反的比较:

  As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of mind, they are in a way quite similar。

  on the other hand, conversely, whereas, while, instead, nevertheless, in contrast, on the contrary, compared with …, …

  如此可见,长短句结合,抑扬顿挫,岂不爽哉?牢记!

  运用上面三种常用的丰富文章主体的方法,同学们在今后的考试中一定能将苍白空洞的文章变得生动丰富,并且可以吸引到阅卷考官的注意。

  强烈建议:在文章第一段(开头)用一长一短,且先长后短;在文章主体部分,要先用一个短句解释主要意思,然后在阐述几个要点的时候采用先短后长的句群形式,定会让主体部分妙笔生辉!文章结尾一般用一长一短就可以了。

  本文转自JT_Education的博客,点击阅读全文

  二、主题句原则

  新浪声明:此消息系转载自新浪博客,新浪网登载此文出于传递更多信息之目的,并不意味着赞同其观点或证实其描述,文章内容仅供参考。

  国有其君,家有其主,文章也要有其主。否则会给人造成“群龙无首”之感!相信各位读过一些破烂文学,故意把主体隐藏在文章之内,结果造成我们稀里糊涂!不知所云!所以奉劝各位一定要写一个主题句,放在文章的开头(保险型)或者结尾,让读者一目了然,必会平安无事!

  实习编辑:王雨欣 责任编辑:赵润琰

  特别提示:隐藏主体句可是要冒险的!

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